A bone marrow transplant, more commonly known as a stem cell transplant, replaces damaged bone marrow with healthy bone marrow stem cells.
There are three kinds of bone marrow transplants:
Autologous bone marrow transplant: Your own stem cells are removed and stored in a freezer. After high-dose chemotherapy or radiation treatments are done, your stems cells are returned. This is called a "rescue" transplant.
Allogeneic bone marrow transplant: Stem cells are taken from another person, called a donor. Blood tests are performed to determine whether the donor is a good match for you. A sibling is most likely to be a good match.
Umbilical cord blood transplant: Stem cells are removed from a newborn baby's umbilical cord immediately after birth.